What Are Logical Fallacies and How to Identify Them in an Argument

Ad hominem Fallacy

An ad hominem fallacy is one that attempts to invalidate an opponent’s position based on a personal trait or fact about the opponent rather than through logic. It is a category of argumentative strategies that involve criticizing an opponent’s character, motive, background, or other personal attributes instead of their argument’s content.

It is important to note that not all ad hominem arguments are fallacies. If there is a conflict of interest that is being hidden, such as personal gain that has clearly influenced a person’s position. 

Ad Hominem Examples

We have identified the following examples of ad hominem arguments in everyday articles, conversations and social posts so you can be aware of them while defending your positions. 

Red Herring Fallacy

A red herring is an attempt to shift focus from the debate at hand by introducing an irrelevant point.

Red Herring Fallacy Examples

We have identified the following examples of red herring arguments in everyday articles, conversations and social posts so you can be aware of them while defending your positions.

Straw Man Fallacy

A straw man argument is one that argues against a hyperbolic, inaccurate version of the opposition rather than their actual argument.

Straw Man Fallacy Examples

We have identified the following examples of red herring arguments in everyday articles, conversations and social posts so you can be aware of them while defending your positions.

Equivocation Fallacy

An equivocation is a statement crafted to mislead or confuse readers or listeners by using multiple meanings or interpretations of a word or simply through unclear phrasing.

Equivocation Fallacy Examples

We have identified the following examples of equivocation arguments in everyday articles, conversations and social posts so you can be aware of them while defending your positions.

Slippery Slope Fallacy

With a slippery slope fallacy, the arguer claims a specific series of events will follow one starting point, typically with no supporting evidence for this chain of events.

Slippery Slope Fallacy Examples

We have identified the following examples of slippery slope arguments in everyday articles, conversations and social posts so you can be aware of them while defending your positions.

Hasty Generalization Fallacy

A hasty generalization is a statement made after considering just one or a few examples rather than relying on more extensive research to back up the claim. It’s important to keep in mind that what constitutes sufficient research depends on the issue at hand and the statement being made about it.

Hasty Generalization Fallacy Examples

We have identified the following examples of hasty generalization arguments in everyday articles, conversations and social posts so you can be aware of them while defending your positions.

Appeal to Authority Fallacy

In an appeal to authority, the arguer claims an authority figure’s expertise to support a claim despite this expertise being irrelevant or overstated.

Appeal to Authority Fallacy Examples

We have identified the following examples of appeal to authority arguments in everyday articles, conversations and social posts so you can be aware of them while defending your positions.

False Dilemma Fallacy

A false dilemma, also known as a false dichotomy, claims there are only two options in a given situation. Often, these two options are extreme opposites of each other, failing to acknowledge that other, more reasonable, options exist.

False Dilemma Fallacy Examples

We have identified the following examples of false dilemma arguments in everyday articles, conversations and social posts so you can be aware of them while defending your positions.

Bandwagon Fallacy

With the bandwagon fallacy, the arguer claims that a certain action is the right thing to do because it’s popular.

Bandwagon Fallacy Examples

We have identified the following examples of bandwagon arguments in everyday articles, conversations and social posts so you can be aware of them while defending your positions.

Appeal to Ignorance Fallacy

An appeal to ignorance is a claim that something must be true because it hasn’t been proven false. It can also be a claim that something must be false because it hasn’t been proven true. This is also known as the burden of proof fallacy.

Appeal to Ignorance Fallacy Examples

We have identified the following examples of appeal to ignorance arguments in everyday articles, conversations and social posts so you can be aware of them while defending your positions.

Circular Argument Fallacy

A circular argument is one that uses the same statement as both the premise and the conclusion. No new information or justification is introduced.

Circular Argument Fallacy Examples

We have identified the following examples of circular arguments in everyday articles, conversations and social posts so you can be aware of them while defending your positions.

Sunk Cost Fallacy

With the sunk cost fallacy, the arguer justifies their decision to continue a specific course of action by the amount of time or money they’ve already spent on it.

Sunk Cost Fallacy Examples

We have identified the following examples of sunk cost arguments in everyday articles, conversations and social posts so you can be aware of them while defending your positions.

Appeal to Pity Fallacy

An appeal to pity attempts to sway a reader’s or listener’s opinion by provoking them emotionally.

Appeal to Pity Fallacy Examples

We have identified the following examples of sunk cost arguments in everyday articles, conversations and social posts so you can be aware of them while defending your positions.

Causal Fallacy

A causal fallacy is one that implies a relationship between two things where one can’t actually be proven.

Causal Fallacy Examples

We have identified the following examples of sunk cost arguments in everyday articles, conversations and social posts so you can be aware of them while defending your positions.

Appeal to Hypocrisy Fallacy

An appeal to hypocrisy, also known as a tu quoque fallacy, is a rebuttal that responds to one claim with reactive criticism rather than with a response to the claim itself.

Appeal to Hypocrisy Fallacy Examples

We have identified the following examples of sunk cost arguments in everyday articles, conversations and social posts so you can be aware of them while defending your positions.

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